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It bears the inﬂuence of Berkeley and is cast in the Interest in Medical Education form of a dialogue; it ﬁrst appeared in 1854 and passed through four editions purchase zebeta 5mg overnight delivery blood pressure chart preeclampsia. He treats the ques- Next to his interest in diseases of joints discount 5 mg zebeta with visa arrhythmia hypothyroidism, Brodie tion of the existence and creative energy of God gave a good deal of attention to maladies of the as settled and teaches that mind and matter are urinary system. In pre-antiseptic days, lithotomy different in their nature, so that mental phenom- was not without serious risks; to avoid them ena cannot be regarded as the product of material Civiale introduced lithotrity. He attributes great importance to the appreciate the greater safety of this procedure and imagination and its training by education; the pos- took a leading part in England in advocating session of this great faculty distinguishes man lithotrity in place of lithotomy. All philosophies rest on at Betchworth, Surrey, which he purchased in certain assumptions and one such for Brodie was 1837. Furthermore, he gave more attention to “the existence of one’s own mind is the only thing medical education and reform, both of which had of which one has any positive and actual knowl- always interested him. The object of this institution was “to unto himself, to ﬁnd out his own deﬁciencies and insure the introduction into the profession of a endeavour to correct them, to doubt his own observations until they are carefully veriﬁed. By this though not perhaps handsome; his frame was instrument all power of election was vested in the slight and small but he had consuming energy. In Fellows; retention of ofﬁce for life by examiners private life he was known for his playful humor and members of Council was abolished; the and fund of anecdote. As a lecturer “none who ofﬁces of president and vice-president were heard him can forget the graphic yet artless restricted to members of the Court of Examiners. A reg- leading surgeon in England, added to which he ister was to be established of persons holding a had more intimate contact with leaders of science diploma or license from a licensing body after and literature. Brodie was chosen to be the ﬁrst a rare combination of surgeon, scientist and president of this Council. He had a Hunterian attitude towards 45 Who’s Who in Orthopedics surgery in that he regarded scientiﬁc research to be the handmaid of practice. He made a lasting contribution towards medical education whereby preliminary instruction in the arts and professional training were greatly improved. By his advocacy of reform of the Royal College of Surgeons, he helped to raise its status as a gov- erning body and enhanced the quality of those whom it approved to practice surgery. For the last few years of his life he suffered from double cataract, for the relief of which Sir William Bowman operated. In July 1862, he began to complain of pain in his right shoulder, caused by malignant disease; he died on October 21. Twenty-eight years before, he had fallen from a pony and dislocated this joint. British Journal of Surgery (1918) Sir Benjamin Gurdon Buck was a New Yorker, born on Fulton Collins Brodie. After graduating from the Nelson Classical Brodie’s Tumour, and Brodie’s Abscess. Brodie, Sir Benjamin Collins (1865) The Works of Europe where his marriage to Henrietta E. Wolff Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie arranged by Charles was celebrated in Geneva. London, Longman, York, he was appointed visiting surgeon to the Green, Longman, Roberts and Green New York Hospital. Holmes, Timothy (1898) Sir Benjamin Collins Eight years later, he described osteotomy in a Brodie. Fisher Unwin classic paper: “The knee-joint ankylosed at a right angle—restored nearly to a straight position after the excision of a wedge-shaped portion of bone, consisting of the patella, condyles, and articular surface of the tibia. Gurdon Buck, working at the New York Hos- pital, devised a simple traction system using either the elastic material or adhesive strips attached to a pulley apparatus. Because of its simple construction and easy application, the method won immediate worldwide acceptance. This was due in part to the fact that shortly after its presentation at the New York Academy of Medicine on March 20 and April 17, 1861 and its 46 Who’s Who in Orthopedics publication in the Academy’s Transactions, it was used extensively in the American Civil War. In military affairs, wars always are an invitation to observers from foreign services.
Look at guidelines on best practice Check clinical guidelines zebeta 5mg generic heart attack from weed, quality standards and care pathways buy 10 mg zebeta with visa blood pressure ranges low normal high. Review the research Search databases and liaise with medical schools or universities for infor mation on current research findings. Seek an expert opinion Find out from the experts about what should be in your leaflet. This involves a panel of experts who are asked to make suggestions about the ideal content. However, rather than discussing it as a group, the experts are asked to comment anonymously. The information is compiled into a list by a person external to the panel, who marks any items that have not received unanimous support. The list is returned to the ex perts who are asked to comment (again anonymously) on the items not agreed. The process is repeated until there is a core list of items that everyone agrees upon. Use a storyboard A storyboard is a way of planning the sequence of your information. Using a simple grid, the planned content is plotted out like a story using simple bullet points or summaries. This gives you a clearer idea of the order and provides an overview that is difficult to get in any other way. Your instinct may be to follow the medical model and start with a description of the disease, causes, treatment and so on. However, this might not be the way in which the client experiences his or her illness. Explain terminology It may be necessary to use certain terms and expressions. Always make sure you give an explanation, and if necessary provide examples. In the follow ing extract, the term ‘urethra’ is explained in simple language. The prostate is a small gland, which lies at the neck of the bladder in men and surrounds the urethra – the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis …’ (World Cancer Research Fund 2000) Once you have explained a label, continue to use it rather than introducing any alternatives. Be aware of ambiguous word meanings In English some of the words we use alter in meaning depending on the context in which they are used. Look at the examples below: ° Registrar = ° In the registry office – a keeper of names for births, deaths and marriages. Make sure that your reader will understand the intended meaning of your vocabulary. Check the emotional loading of words Certain words will have a higher emotional loading for clients. For exam ple, the words ‘cancer’ and ‘treatment’ in a recall letter after breast screen INFORMATION LEAFLETS FOR CLIENTS 99 ing were found to make women worry (Austoker and Ong 1994). Rewording the message may reduce stress and anxiety – so using ‘most re called women are found to have normal breasts’ was more reassuring than ‘most recalled women are found not to have cancer’ (Ong, Austoker and Brouwer 1996). Write words in full Avoid using abbreviations or acronyms even if these are explained in your text. They tend to confuse readers who are less familiar with these types of expressions. Phrasing the message The type and length of sentences will affect the amount of information the reader understands and remembers. Use short words and sentences There are a number of published tests designed to calculate the readability of set pieces of text (Flesch 1948; Gunning 1952). These make their calcu lations using various formulae that involve looking at the length of sen tences and the number of syllables. These tests predict the reading age required to cope with decoding the text.
Two conceptual problems I encountered early on in this research were to determine just what to class as an alternative therapy and just who to consider a user of alternative health care order zebeta 5mg line blood pressure natural remedies. That conceptualizing alternative therapy is problematic is evident from a cursory review of the relevant literature cheap 5mg zebeta heart attack 23 years old, which reveals a “maze of definitions” where alternative approaches to health and healing are concerned (Achilles 2001:I. In short, there is no consensus as to how we should refer to these forms of health care. Given this definitional conundrum, deter- mining who is a user of alternative therapies also proves problematic. Anyinam (1990:69) pointedly illustrates the ambiguity inherent in con- ceptualizations of alternative health care when he writes: “‘Alternative medicine’... The acronym CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) is also increasingly used to refer to these approaches to health and healing (Blais 2000; Kelner et al. What all of these concepts have in common is that they define alternative therapies in terms of what they are not, namely, allopathic medicine (Furnham and Bhagrath 1993). They write that CAM is “an approach to health care that while different from conventional medicine, is sometimes complementary to it and at other times distinctly alternative” (Kelner and Wellman 2000:5–6). In addition, from the perspective of medical professionals, alternative therapy refers to those approaches that fall outside of medical practice (Kelner and Wellman 2000). More specifically, that a particular therapy has not been legitimated by the medical community. However, some alternative therapies, such as iridology and astrological healing, were not seen as credible in the eyes of the general practitioners they studied. They write: “Manual therapy in the Netherlands is generally not considered alternative medicine any more. No less than 80% believes [sic] it to be efficacious in the treatment of patients with chronic neck or back problems” (Knipchild et al. A similar distinction is made by Leech (1999), a princi- pal medical officer of Britain’s National Health Service Executive, who equates complementary therapies with those that have become regulated and whose efficacy has been certified according to medical and scientific standards. Researchers who favour such functionalist or residual definitions tend to categorize particular therapies “along a spectrum that varies from ‘more alternative’ to ‘less alternative’ in relationship to exist- ing medical school curricula, clinical training, and practice” (Eisenberg et al. However, as Sharma (1992:4) notes: “‘medical’ practices can never be sharply distinguished from ‘non-medical’ practices in reality. As Simon, a former medical student who practices acupunc- ture, told me, “I can understand the release of endorphins and all the chem- icals from the brain. The analgesic effect of acupuncture, the calming effect; different chemicals are released. For example, there is increasing talk of a holistic or integrative approach to allopathic medicine; many alternative therapies are part of medical school curriculum; and a variety of alternative therapies are available in hospitals (de Bruyn 2001; O’Connor 1995; Sharma 1992; Tataryn and Verhoef 2001). Given the overlap between alternative and allopathic concepts and therapeutic techniques, defining alternative health and healing residually is hardly useful (Wardwell 1994). To further muddy the conceptual waters, what is considered an alternative therapy changes over time (Bakx 1991; Wardwell 1994), from social context to social context, and from person to person (Boon et al. For instance, several of the people who participated in this research referred to the variable definitional boundaries surrounding alternative therapies. In Roger’s words: One of the things I got involved in a very long time ago is considered part of the alternative medicine alphabet soup of things, but at that time I didn’t think of it that way. A lot of these things, where the boundary is, what gets included under that rubric, is kind of fluid. Clearly, objectivist definitions of alternative therapies are inherently problematic (Low 2001a; Pawluch 1996; Sharma 1993; Thomas et al. Equally troubling is Jones’ (1987) conclusion that there is no real dif- ference between alternative and allopathic medicine. Citing the British Medical Association’s Report on Alternative Medicine, Jones (1987:69) argues that “there... However, the people who participated in this research do believe that there is something distinctive about their alternative health care. Pawluch (1996) argues that defining alternative health and healing objectively is impossible. She concludes that the only viable definitional strategy is to look at the claims that people make about what is and what What Are Alternative Therapies and Who Uses Them? One group of claims are those made by alternative practitioners (Lowenberg 1992).
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