By J. Tyler. Williams College.
Unlike 186 TEXTBOOK OF CLINICAL TRIALS DASH discount roxithromycin 150 mg with visa antimicrobial resistance in developing countries, the participants were not provided spe- enough magnitude to alter mortality order roxithromycin 150 mg with mastercard best antibiotic for sinus infection cipro. The primary outcome was happened in some of the early trials of cholesterol systolic blood pressure six months after randomi- lowering that failed to show improvement in sation. Fourth, however, hypertension were also seen in the combined even though mortality and recurrent infarction group, with the behavioural intervention group a were unchanged, the apparent improvements in close second. Thus, a combination of behavioural depression and social support are not trivial approaches and dietary changes can result in ﬁndings. Unlike surrogate outcome variables that meaningful blood pressure reduction. Even so, have little clinical meaning, these outcomes are the DASH diet, unlike in the previous feed- clinically important in their own right. The adoption of the diet in PREMIER with one group of communities compared against was not as intensive as in the feeding studies. The changes, in order to be effective, Whether the changes observed in PREMIER per- need to be community-wide. One group enrolled 2481 patients at 73 hospitals who had of cities received intervention through the media, had a myocardial infarction within the previous community organisations, and professional and 28 days. In addition, all participants had depres- patient education in an effort to improve the sion, low social support, or both. Because depres- response time in the event of symptoms of an sion and poor social support are associated with acute myocardial infarction. The other group of increased mortality after a heart attack, it was cities served as the control. The primary outcome thought that intervening on those factors might was time from symptom onset to arrival in the lead to improved survival. REACT showed to intervention received counselling; the control increased use of the emergency medical system, group received usual medical care. Both groups but no difference between the groups in time to received information on heart disease risk factors. In general, however, they were not particularly First, despite the association between depression successful in achieving large differences despite and heart disease, treatment of depression may intensive education efforts. The reasons are prob- not lead to change in mortality from heart disease. Among them are that the interven- That is, depression may not be a causative factor. National Institutes of Health and National Heart, community-wide efforts at behaviour change Lung and Blood Institute. Morbidity & Mortality: illustrate both the difﬁculties in achieving behav- 2002 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung, and iour change and the problems in community, as Blood Diseases. Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health (2002). There are certain features that need to be con- Experimental design features. Contr Clin Trials sidered in cardiovascular disease trials, whether (1983) 4: 313–32. Those features include the chronic nature Cloﬁbrate and niacin in coronary heart disease. Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, Stamler J, Friedman L, Prineas RJ, et al. Fifteen year mor- and the fact that huge numbers of people develop tality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term cardiovascular disease of one form or another. J Am Coll Cardiol (1986) 8: this chapter, we have reviewed these and other 1245–55. Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Preven- devices and surgical procedures, and behavioural tion Trial.
The drug Ephedra (ma huang) is an herb in many weight loss products blocks absorption of approximately 30% of the fat ingested (eg 150mg roxithromycin with amex antibiotics vs antivirals, Metabolife discount roxithromycin 150 mg free shipping antibiotic resistant gonorrhea, Herbalife, others). Decreased fat absorption leads to decreased caloric use by anyone because it is a strong cardiovascular and CNS intake, resulting in weight loss and improved serum choles- stimulant that increases risks of heart attack, seizure, stroke, terol values (eg, decreases total and LDL cholesterol levels). Many ephedra-containing products also The improvement in cholesterol is believed to be independent contain caffeine, which can further increase cardiovascular of weight loss effects. Orlistat is not absorbed systemically, and its action occurs Glucomannan expands on contact with body ﬂuids. Consequently, it does not cause systemic ad- cluded in weight loss regimens because of its supposed ability verse effects or drug interactions as do phentermine and sibu- to produce feelings of stomach fullness, causing a person to tramine. There is little evidence (3 times daily) and GI symptoms (abdominal pain, oily spot- to support its use as a weight loss aid. Products containing ting, fecal urgency, ﬂatulence with discharge, fatty stools, fecal glucomannan should not be used by people with diabetes; it incontinence, and increased defecation). Adverse GI effects may cause hypoglycemia alone and increases hypoglycemic occur in almost all orlistat users but usually subside after ap- effects of antidiabetic medications. In addition, the drug prevents absorption Guarana, a major source of commercial caffeine, is found of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. As a result, people in weight loss products as well as caffeine-containing soft taking orlistat should also take a daily multivitamin containing drinks, bodybuilding supplements, smoking cessation products, these vitamins. The multivitamin should be taken 2 hours be- vitamin supplements, candies, and chewing gums. If taken at the same time, the orli- is the active ingredient; the amount varies among prod- stat prevents absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins. Guarana is promoted to decrease not for those wanting to lose a few pounds. It is con- fat foods still must be decreased because total caloric intake traindicated in clients with dysrhythmias and may aggravate is a major determinant of weight and adverse effects (eg, diar- gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer rhea and fatty, malodorous stools) worsen with high fat con- disease. Long-term effects of orlistat are unknown, although Adverse effects include diuresis, cardiovascular symp- one study reported safe and effective use for 2 years. In toms (premature ventricular contractions, tachycardia), CNS addition to weight loss and reduced cholesterol levels, clini- symptoms (agitation, anxiety, insomnia, seizures, tremors), cal trials found a reduction in other risk factors associated and GI symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Such effects with obesity, such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, and ex- are more likely to occur with higher doses or concomitant use cessive waist circumference. Adverse drug-drug interactions include additive CNS and cardiovascular stimu- lation with beta adrenergic agonists (eg, epinephrine, albuterol HERBAL AND DIETARY and related drugs, pseudoephedrine) and theophylline. In ad- SUPPLEMENTS dition, concurrent use of cimetidine, ﬂuoroquinolones, or oral contraceptives may increase or prolong serum caffeine levels Many people use herbal or dietary supplements for weight loss, and subsequent adverse effects. Some herbal products claim to decrease because it is bulk forming, produces feelings of fullness, and appetite and increase the rate at which the body burns calories. It may cause esophageal or intestinal However, their effectiveness varies and, in most cases, there is obstruction if not taken with an adequate amount of water and no scientiﬁc evidence that they work at all. Most supplements may interfere with the absorption of other drugs if taken at for weight loss contain cardiovascular and CNS stimulants that the same time. Adverse effects include nausea, diarrhea, ﬂat- may cause serious, even life-threatening, adverse effects. CHAPTER 30 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT PRODUCTS AND DRUGS FOR OBESITY 441 Hydroxycitric acid (HCA, found in CitriMax) apparently 2 culate or estimate the BMI; a BMI less than 18. If so, calculate the BMI Laxative and diuretic herbs (eg, aloe, rhubarb root, buck- or use the information in Table 30-5 to estimate the BMI. These products cause a sig- or aggravated by excessive weight, if there is interest in a niﬁcant loss of body ﬂuids, not fat. Adverse effects may in- weight-management program to improve health, and what clude low serum potassium levels, with subsequent cardiac methods, over-the-counter products, or herbal or dietary dysrhythmias and other heart problems. In addition, long-term supplements, if any, have been used to reduce weight. The use of laxatives may lead to loss of normal bowel function and nurse must be very tactful in eliciting information and as- the necessity for continued use (ie, laxative dependency). LipoKinetix, a combination dietary supplement, was re- sessing whether a client would like assistance with weight cently associated with severe hepatotoxicity in 7 young (ages management. If the nurse–client contact stems from a 20 to 32 years), previously healthy people who developed health problem caused or aggravated by excessive weight, acute hepatitis.
Clinical indications for use include prevention and treat- Multiple drugs are required to eradicate H safe roxithromycin 150 mg infection control today. Effective combinations include two ease order 150mg roxithromycin with mastercard virus scan, esophagitis, GI bleeding due to acute stress ulcers, and antimicrobials and a PPI or an H2RA. With gastric or duodenal ul- component, two of the following drugs—amoxicillin, cla- cers, healing occurs within 6 to 8 weeks; with esophagitis, rithromycin, metronidazole, or tetracycline—are used. Over-the-counter oral A single antimicrobial agent is not used because of concern preparations, at lower dosage strengths, are approved for the about emergence of drug-resistant H. In addition, antimicrobial– and clients with impaired renal or hepatic function. Dosage antisecretory combinations are associated with low ulcer should be reduced in the presence of impaired renal function. Adverse effects occur infrequently with usual doses and A bismuth preparation is added to some regimens. They are more likely to occur with pro- muth exerts antibacterial effects against H. It also increases secretion of mucus and Cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, and nizatidine are the bicarbonate, inhibits pepsin activity, and accumulates in ulcer four available H2RAs. The regimen using metronidazole, a drug is distributed in almost all body tissues. Cimetidine bismuth compound, tetracycline, and an antisecretory drug is should be used with caution during pregnancy because it very effective in healing ulcers. However, this regimen is not crosses the placenta, and it should not be taken during lacta- well tolerated, partly because of the multiple daily doses re- tion because it is excreted in breast milk. Because client compliance is a difﬁculty with all the is excreted unchanged in the urine within 24 hours; some is H. For acutely ill clients, packaged as individual doses to increase convenience. A major disadvantage of example, Helidac contains bismuth, metronidazole, and tetra- cimetidine is that it inhibits the hepatic metabolism of nu- cycline (taken with an H2RA); Prevpac contains amoxicillin, merous other drugs, thereby increasing blood levels and risks clarithromycin, and lansoprazole. Ranitidine is more potent than cimetidine on a weight basis, and smaller doses can be given less frequently. In ad- Histamine-2 Receptor dition, ranitidine causes fewer drug interactions than cimeti- Antagonists (H2RAs) dine. Oral ranitidine reaches peak blood levels 1 to 3 hours after administration, and is metabolized in the liver; approx- Histamine is a substance found in almost every body tissue imately 30% is excreted unchanged in the urine. Parenteral and released in response to certain stimuli (eg, allergic reac- ranitidine reaches peak blood levels in about 15 minutes; CHAPTER 60 DRUGS USED FOR PEPTIC ULCER AND ACID REFLUX DISORDERS 873 65% to 80% is excreted unchanged in the urine. Famotidine Omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and nizatidine are similar to cimetidine and ranitidine. Omeprazole was the ﬁrst Compared with cimetidine, the other drugs cause similar and is still widely used. It is well absorbed after oral adminis- effects except they are less likely to cause mental confusion tration, highly bound to plasma proteins (about 95%), metab- and gynecomastia (antiandrogenic effects). In addition, they olized in the liver, and excreted in the urine (about 75%) and do not affect the cytochrome P450 drug-metabolizing system bile or feces. Acid-inhibiting effects occur within 2 hours and in the liver and therefore do not interfere with the metabolism last 72 hours or longer. Omeprazole (Prilosec) Proton Pump Inhibitors is expected to be approved for over-the-counter sales for treat- ing heartburn. If heartburn is not improved within 14 days of PPIs are strong inhibitors of gastric acid secretion. These treatment, clients should be evaluated by their health care drugs bind irreversibly to the gastric proton pump (ie, the en- provider. Prescription omeprazole has been very expensive; zyme H+, K+-ATPase) to prevent the pumping or release of with nonprescription use, the cost should be much less. Inhibition of the proton pump suppresses gastric acid secretion in re- Prostaglandin sponse to all primary stimuli, histamine, gastrin, and acetyl- choline.
It also trains the body to deliver fatal blows that are enhanced with Qi purchase roxithromycin 150 mg without prescription bacteria in the blood, such as those found in Burning Palm or Iron Palm methods cheap roxithromycin 150mg without prescription infection 2 months after surgery. Within the various schools of Qigong, you will find very simple and easy-to-do sets, such as the 18-Movement Qigong and Eight Pieces of Brocade, to more com- plicated methods such as Wild Goose Qigong and Falun Gong. All have their rela- tive merits and drawbacks, so once you progress to the stage where you are looking for a new Qigong form, choose carefully. TLFeBOOK Q igong B asics / 39 Introduction to Medical Qigong Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a holistic system for promoting health through the use of several therapies such as acupuncture, herbal medicine, acupressure massage, and Medical Qigong. The central theory of TCM is to balance the Qi (the vital energy in the body) according to several theories such as Yin-Yang, Five Element, and Six Stages. These theories are used in TCM in general as well as in Medical Qigong in particular. In the Yin-Yang Theory, all of life is composed of two opposing yet comple- mentary forces: the yin (feminine, dark, weak) and the yang (masculine, light, strong). At birth, the human body normally contains equal amounts of both traits. When sickness develops, it can be attributed to a deficiency or excess of either of the two forces. Medical Qigong seeks to restore this balance through movement and breathing exercises. The Five Element Theory states that all things in the universe, including hu- mans, have a collection of traits that correspond to five natural Elements: Wood, Fire, Metal, Earth, and Water. Within each of these elements is found a certain physical and mental representation: Wood: Liver, growth at birth, yang. Qigong exercises affect the actions of the five Elements in the body through Qi flow. Thus, a person who is diagnosed as being Water deficient may have exercises prescribed to improve that Element, thus aiding kidney function. An expert in Medical Qigong is often also a Chinese medicine practitioner, as the ability to di- agnose the five Element signs is vital to both fields. The Six Stages Theory uses the idea that disease attacks certain organs and organ systems according to severity and level of infection. For example, the Great Yang Stage sickness affects the exterior of the body, in addition to the small intes- tine and bladder, while the Terminal Yin Stage affects the pericardium and liver organs and strikes deep within the body. According to the proper diagnosis using this theory, exercises would again be prescribed to alleviate the disease. A more detailed account of Traditional Chinese Medicine can be found in Chap- ter12. The exercises that you will learn here are designed to give your body a tune up at many different levels. They have been refined and tested over thousands of years specifically with medical concerns in mind. So when you do the exercises in their proper form and sequence, you will be stimulating the meridians and channels in the body to enhance the flow of healthy energy (Qi) while at the same time eliminating the unhealthy energy (Sha Qi). Because of the positions assumed during the movements, you are alternately com- pressing and expanding the energy rivers, in addition to exercising the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints. By learning proper posture and diaphragmatic breath- ing, you are aiding your body in maintaining optimal health and fitness. The twist- ing of the waist and hips, along with the spinal stimulation, helps to massage the internal organs and the tissue surrounding them. While all of this activity is taking place, you are maintaining a calm and relaxed mental state through your focus on the simple movements. Thus you are taking a break from your worries and sick- nesses through the practice of Medical Qigong. Precautions The exercises contained and taught in this book are designed to be easy to learn for the general population, but there can be times when a particular move- ment causes undue pain or discomfort. Students often comment on how much more alive they feel after their practice. Often, the simple re-adjustment of a shoulder or wrist can be the difference between relaxation and stress, so you might like to review the instructions and photos, and determine if this is the cause of your problem. Another possibility is that your medical condition simply does not allow the movement to be performed. In advanced cases of arthritis and carpal tunnel syn- drome, every movement can feel like a fire burning in your joints.
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