By M. Mazin. University of New Hampshire, Durham.
Biol Psychiatry 2001;49(7): cisapride accelerates delayed gastric emptying and increases antral 644–652 generic antivert 25 mg online symptoms gestational diabetes. Does fluoxetine augment the Garner DM discount antivert 25mg otc treatment 30th october, Garfinkel PE, eds. Diagnostic issues in anorexia ner- inpatient treatment of anorexia nervosa? Effects of carbohydrate depressive illness: a review of 11 studies. Comp Psychiatry 1988; and protein meals on plasma large neutral amino acids, glucose 29:427–432. Am J Psychol weight subjects normalize after weight gain. Amitriptyline in the increases serotonin transporter (SERT) binding sites and SERT treatment of anorexia nervosa: a double-blind placebo-controlled mRNA expression in discrete regions of female rat brain. In: Schatz- trial of lithium carbonate in primary anorexia nervosa. Washington, monoamine metabolism in anorexia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1993:49–70. Personality and symptomatological features in young, 68. Relationship of depres- nonchronic anorexia nervosa patients. J Psychosom Res 1980;24: sion, anxiety, and obsessionality to state of illness in anorexia 353–359. Practice guideline for the treat- ship of eating disorders to major affective disorder. Psychiatry Res ment of patients with eating disorders (revision). Chapter 116: Psychopharmacology of Eating Disorders 1683 70. Intensive nutritional bulimia nervosa, and binge eating. In: Bloom FE, Kupfer DJ, counseling in bulimia nervosa: a role for supplementation with eds. Psychopharmacology: the fourth generation of progress. Flouxetine Bulimia Nervosa Collaborative Study Group. Fluoxe- pharmacological treatments of bulimia nervosa: predictors and tine in the treatment of bulimia nervosa: a multicenter, placebo- processes of change. A double-blind, placebo- treatment of bulimia nervosa. Pharmacologic and treatment of obese binge eaters and non-binge eaters. Am J Psy- cognitive-behavioral treatment for bulimia nervosa: a controlled chiatry 1990;147:876–881. Comparison of cognitive- tricyclic antidepressant and opiate antagonist on binge-eating in behavior therapy and desipramine in the treatment of bulimia normoweight bulimic and obese, binge-eating subjects. Fluvoxamine in controlled trial of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of binge-eating disorder: a multicenter placebo- bulimia nervosa: short-term outcome. Behav Res Ther 1997;9: controlled, double-blind trial. LECKMAN to conceptualize tics in TS as 'movement-equivalents' of Each movement is preceded by certain preliminary sensory obsessions and compulsions, and the apparent connections signals and is in turn followed by sensory impressions at the with OCD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder end of the action. Each movement is the result of a voluntary capitulation to a demanding and relentless urge accompanied (ADHD) raise hope that by solving the TS 'model,' we by an extraordinarily subtle sensation that provokes and fuels will understand a family of disorders that collectively affects the urge. Successively sharper movements build up to a cli- close to 10% of the population. By all accounts, the TS max—a climax that never comes (1). Al- though we still lack clear answers for many of the complex questions raised by this syndrome, this chapter reviews the A MODEL NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDER current state of progress in understanding the clinical fea- tures and neurobiology of TS and related tic disorders.
Elevated blood serotonin in autistic probands and their first-degree relatives cheap antivert 25 mg otc medications information. J and controls can be compared in order to detect etiologically Autism Dev Disord 1989;19:397–407 discount 25 mg antivert otc medicine hat tigers. Platelet serotonin, a possible method are the collection of brain tissue, which must be marker for familial autism. Minor malformations and tation of the data generated from such experiments (147). Altered gene expression, for example, may be due to medica- 8. JAm tion effects as opposed to an etiologically relevant mecha- Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1990;29:127–129. The most meaningful studies of gene expression at 9. Microcephaly and mac- this time, therefore, may come from animals genetically de- rocephaly in autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; and timing of the tissue analysis can be controlled. Refining the Phenotype Through Lancet 1993;341:1225–1226. Brief report: neuroanatomic observations of the Biological Correlates of Illness brain in pervasive developmental disorders. The primary purpose for investigating the BAP is to enable 13. Autism and macro- identification of meaningful genetic subgroups based on the cephaly. An MRI study of brain size in being pursued with various biological correlates of the disor- autism. An MRI study of the basal CONCLUSION ganglia in autism. Numerous complementary strategies are currently being Acta Psychiatr Scand 1999;99:399–406. The UCLA- studies have identified a number of suggestive loci, most University of Utah epidemiologic survey of autism: recurrence notably distal 7q. Interest in this region is supported by risk estimates and genetic counseling. Am J Psychiatry 1989; findings from language-disorder families and from a small 146:1032–1036. Genetics of au- number of 7q chromosomal anomalies in individuals with tism: overview and new directions. Chromosomal anomalies also implicate 15q11-q13 28:351–368. Autism as a strongly genetic of the region have not been as impressive. These findings disorder: evidence from a British twin study. Twin and adoption studies in child and adolescent harboring genes in autism. As sample sizes continue to grow psychiatric disorders. How commonly are known medical methods improve, and as complementary strategies such as conditions associated with autism? J Autism Dev Disord 1998; the use of the BAP emerge, it seems plausible that in the 28:273–278. Autism and tuberous sclerosis complex: near future more disease loci will be uncovered and specific prevalence and clinical features. J Autism Dev Disord 1998;28: autism disease genes may be identified.
Group I includes tically and perisynaptically (97–99) order antivert 25 mg with visa symptoms after hysterectomy. In addition generic antivert 25mg fast delivery treatment 2 degree burns, the mGluR 1 and mGluR 5, which act via phospholipase C; mGluRs exhibit a high degree of specificity in this regard group II includes mGluR 2 and mGluR 3, which are nega- with mGluR7 (100,101) and mGluR4 (102) (which are tively coupled to adenylyl cyclase; and group III, which primarily present presynaptically) and mGluRs 1 and 5 includes mGluR 4, 6, 7, and 8, and are also negatively (which are primarily present perisynaptically) (103–105). Adding to this complexity, These patterns suggest that synaptic localization is partially mGluR 1 has four splice variants, whereas mGluR 4 and 5 segregated by mGluR group (99), with group I primarily each have two. The mGluRs within a group exhibit greater perisynaptic, surrounding the postsynaptic density, group than 70% sequence homology, whereas the homology falls II primarily presynaptic or extrasynaptic, and group III opti- to approximately 45% between groups (82). These synaptic distribution patterns position mGluRs transmembrane domains separated by short intracellular to play a critical role in modulating excitatory neurotrans- and extracellular loops and an unusually large extracellular mission. Group I mGluRs stimulate phospholipase C and the hy- In further contradistinction to other GPCRs, the agonist drolysis of phosphoinositide. These two receptors have been binding sites for the mGluRs are located in the extracellular reported to stimulate cAMPformation in different model domain. As a family, mGluRs are broadly expressed in the systems (106). They also increase the excitability of neurons nervous system, with group I having primarily a postsynap- currents, through a mechanism that by reducing the K tic localization, whereas groups II and III primarily have a appears to be independent of G-protein action (107). Al- presynaptic localization where they serve as autoreceptors though the AMPA receptor agonist, quisqualic acid, is the 76 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress most potent agonist at the group I mGluRs, 3,5-dihydroxy- traordinary gradients with the extracellular concentration phenylglycine (3,5-DHPG) is the most specific agonist. Energy deprivation not only collapses the so- pharmacology. The group porter, thereby inhibiting glutamate uptake, but also results III mGluRs inhibit adenylyl cyclase via GI-protein, al- in reverse transport with massive efflux of glutamate stores though they may utilize other transduction mechanisms. Pharmacologic inhibition of glutamate transport in The most specific agonist at group I mGluRs appears to tissue culture models has been shown to promote excitotoxic be 2R, 4R-4-aminio pyrrolidine-2, 4 dicarboxylate neurodegeneration (118). LY354740 is an exceptionally potent and selective Early pharmacologic studies pointed to the existence of agonist at group II mGluRs and is effective with systemic subtypes of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters in administration (108). Notably, N-acetylaspartyl glutamate brain with cerebellum exhibiting a form that is much more (NAAG), an endogenous neuropeptide, is a relatively potent sensitive to inhibition by L- -aminoadipate and forebrain agonist at mGluR 3, although it also serves as an antagonist sensitive to dihydrokainate (119). L-aminophosphonobutyric heterogeneity as well as the diverse cellular distribution of acid (L-AP4) is the most potent and selective agonist at the the sodium-dependent glutamate transporters have been il- group III mGluRs with the exception of mGluR 7, where luminated recently by their cloning and molecular charac- L-serine-O-phosphate has greater potency. EAAT 1 or GLAST has its highest expression in macology of these receptors remains less well developed than brain but is also found in peripheral tissue and placenta. The cerebellum appears to have the highest level within The heterogeneity of the mGluRs and their role in mod- brain, depending on the species. EAAT 2 (GLT 1) is primar- ulating glutamatergic neurotransmission make them attrac- ily expressed in brain, although low levels have been re- tive potential therapeutic targets for drug development. Its associated with protection against excitotoxicity, whereas expression is predominantly if not exclusively astroglial in activation of group I mGluRs may actually enhance NMDA localization. The predominant neuronal transporter is receptor-mediated neuronal degeneration (110,111). Re- EAAT 3, which is also expressed in kidney and to a lesser cently it has been shown that inhibition of GCPII, the extent in other peripheral tissues. Consistent with the broad enzyme that degrades the selective mGluR 3 agonist NAAG, distribution of glutamatergic neuronal systems in brain, the provides potent protection against neuronal degeneration levels of EAAT 3 are fairly uniform. EAAT 3 is not consis- caused by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery tently expressed in all glutamatergic systems, and some non- (112). A similar reciprocal relationship has been observed glutamatergic systems express it (122). Thus, EAAT 3 does with regard to the effects on epilepsy with group I agonists not appear to be a specific marker for glutamatergic neurons. Finally, metabotropic receptors, both in the 4, which is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells; and EAAT dorsal root and thalamus, have been implicated in modulat- 5, which is limited to the retina. A double- label postembedding immunogold study demonstrated the The demonstration of sodium-dependent high-affinity value of such ultrastructural data for revealing the impor- transport of glutamate in synaptosomal preparations was tance of differential distribution of these proteins with re- the first evidence supporting the hypothesis that glutamate spect to the synapse (44). The double-label analysis targeted serves as a neurotransmitter (115). The presence of these the AMPA subunit GluR2 and the glutamate transporter, transporters on excitatory nerve terminals was exploited to EAAT3 (i.
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